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Monday, August 09, 2021

Departments in a Hospital - Lists and Full Explanations

Departments in a hospital, hospital administration, technical departments, Nursing Department, clinical departments

Departments in a Hospital

Hospital is an integration of several departments such as clinical departments, nursing departments, supportive departments, technical departments and administrative departments. Each department has different purposes and requirements in a hospital. The list of different departments in a hospital are as follows -

1. List of Clinical Departments in a Hospital

• Casualty department
• Operating theatre (OT)
• Intensive care unit (ICU)
• Anesthesiology department
• Cardiology department
• ENT department
• Geriatric department
• Gastroenterology department
• General surgery
• Gynaecology department
• Haematology department
• Pediatrics department
• Neurology department
• Oncology department
• Opthalmology department
• Orthopaedic department
• Urology department
• Psychiatry department
• Inpatient Department (IPD)
• Outpatient Department (OPD)

2. Nursing Department in a Hospital

3. List of Supportive Departments in a Hospital

• Pharmacy department 
• Radiology department 
• Clinical pathology department
• Nutrition and dietetics
• Catering and food services
• Central sterilization unit
• Housekeeping

4. List of Technical Departments in a Hospital

• Clinical engineering department 
• Information technology and communication
• Engineering Services

5. List of Administrative Departments in a Hospital

• Medical records department 
• Human resources department 
• Finance department 
• Administrative department 

List of departments in a hospital, clinical departments, nursing department, technical department, administrative departments

Clinical Departments in a Hospital

Casualty Department -

• The casualty department is also known as the emergency department which deals with emergency conditions or provides immediate treatment.
• In this department, patients are assessed carefully and provided immediate treatment and care before sending for further treatment in a specialised development.
• This department is equipped to handle all kinds of emergencies and provides service 24/7 in the hospital.

Operating Theatre (OT) -

• Operating theatre is also known as operating room or operating suite or operation suite.
• OT deals with surgical operations where surgeons perform surgery in an aseptic environment.
• OT rooms have well lighting, controlled humidity and temperature.
• Operating rooms are generally supported by an anaesthetic room, preparation room, scrub room and dirty utility room.

Intensive Care Unit (ICU) -

• Intensive care unit is also known as critical care unit (CCU), intensive treatment unit (ITU) or intensive therapy unit.
• Intensive care unit deals with life-threatening or severe injuries and illnesses that require close monitoring from life support devices, constant care.
• In ICU, patients are monitored and staffed by highly trained physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists.
• Common equipment in an intensive care unit includes a mechanical ventilator, cardiac monitor, defibrillator, high flow nasal cannula, endotracheal tube, arterial line, infusion pumps, central line, nasogastric tube, nasogastric feed pump, urinary catheter.

Anesthesiology Department -

• In this department, doctors administer anaesthesia to the patients before various procedures and surgeries.
• The different types of anaesthesia provided are - general anaesthesia, nerve plexus blocks, central neuraxial anaesthesia, IV sedation, monitored anaesthesia care.

Cardiology Department -

• Cardiology department deals with the human heart and circulation problems.
• It provides services on an inpatient and outpatient basis.
• In this department, a cardiologist prescribes some tests and some procedures are performed such as angioplasty, inserting a pacemaker, atherectomy, heart catheterization, stent implantation etc.
• Cardiology department contains equipment are ECG machine, ventilator, bedside monitor, syringe pump, defibrillator.

ENT Department -

• ENT department deals with investigation and treatment of ear, nose and throat disorders.
• ENT department deals with various disorders such as:
   - General ear, nose and throat diseases
   - Cancers of the neck and head region
   - Neck lumps
   - ENT allergy problems
   - Balance and hearing disorders
   - Salivary gland diseases
   - Voice disorders
   - Surgical procedures of ENT

Geriatric Department -

• Geriatric department deals with elderly people, their illness and treatment by specialized health personnel.
• The aim of a geriatric department is to maintain the physical and mental well-being of older people.
• This department deal with various significant diseases such as:
   - Dementia
   - Arthritis
   - Osteoporosis
   - Heart dies
   - High blood pressure
   - High cholesterol 
   - Syncope
   - Diabetes
• This department also provides some special community services such as home visits, palliative care, mobile therapy unit etc.

Gastroenterology Department -

• This department deals with digestive system diseases and their management.
• In this department, gastroenterologists investigate, diagnose, treat and prevent all kinds of gastrointestinal problems such as peptic ulcer, gastritis, gallstones, indigestion, faecal incontinence, Hirschsprung disease etc. and perform various surgical procedures.
• Some special instruments are used in this department such as gastroscope, duodenoscope, enteroscope, colonoscope, video capsule, rigid sigmoidoscope etc.

General Surgery -

• In this department perform various surgical procedures.
• Some of the common surgical procedures performed are thyroid surgery, colon surgery, gall bladder surgery, breast surgery etc.

Gynaecology Department -

• Gynaecology department deals with investigation, treatment and prevention of female reproductive system and urinary tract problems.
• Some of the common problems which are investigated and treated are infertility, incontinence, endometritis etc.

Haematology Department -

• Haematology department deals with investigation, treatment and prevention of blood diseases. 
• This department closely work with the hospital laboratory.

Paediatrics Department -

• The paediatrics department deals with infants, children and adolescents.
• This department deals with some significant diseases such as infectious diseases, congenital diseases, mental disorders and childhood cancer.
• In this department health care personnel are specialized and also procedures and practices are different based on the child's age group.

Neurology Department -

• Neurology department deals with the investigation, treatment and prevention of the human nervous system.

Oncology Department -

• Oncology department deals with the investigation and treatment of cancers.
• In this department, cancer patients are treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
• Doctors and nurses of this department need to be highly qualified and experienced.

Ophthalmology Department -

• This department deals with eye problems and treatment.
• Common equipments used in this department are ophthalmoscope, tonometer, slit lamp, phoropter, Snellen chart.

Orthopaedic Department -

• This department deals with problems and treatments of the musculoskeletal system.
• Services include bone setting, repair of damaged bone, ligaments, tendons and replacements of bones.
• This department provides both inpatient and outpatient services.
• Outpatient services include fracture treatment, dislocated joints, musculoskeletal injuries.

Urology Department -

• This department is generally a surgical department that deals with diseases of the female urinary tract, male urinary tract and male reproductive organs.
• Urologist diagnoses and treats problems of the female urinary system and male genitourinary system.

Psychiatry Department -

• This department deals with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness and disorders.
• Some of the services include:
   - Investigation, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness
   - Providing psychological counselling
   - De-addiction services
   - Conducting IQ tests.

Inpatient Department (IPD) -

• This department admits patients in the hospital at least overnight for treatment purposes.
• In this department, patients are monitored by the doctors and nurses in a hospital setting and check patients conditions as frequently as per the hospital protocol.
• Patients may stay in this department for a long duration and it depends on the severity of the patient's illness.

Outpatient Department (OPD) -

• In this department patients visit the hospital for a consultation, diagnosis and treatment but don't get admission.
• Outpatient department provides services at a particular time of the day.
• Here patients get medical services from a specific department based on their problem and the doctor provide a prescription of medicine.

Nursing Department in a Hospital

• Nursing department is an important organizational structure of a hospital that provides nursing services to the clients.
• This department has two major services that are nursing education and nursing care service.
• Nursing department includes lots of duties such as:
   - Patient care
   - Management 
   - Education
   - Ward planning and staffing 
   - Maintenance of supplies
   - Registration and records
   - Monitoring and evaluation
   - Ward administration
• Nursing personnel includes:
   - Nursing superintendent
   - Assistant nursing superintendent
   - Head nurse
   - Staff nurses

Supportive Departments in a Hospital

Pharmacy Department -

• Pharmacy in a hospital is a dispensary that prepares, compounds, stores and dispense medications, especially for inpatient clients.
• Generally hospital pharmacy stocks a large number of medications.
• Pharmacy must be monitored and controlled by registered pharmacists.

Radiology Department -

• Radiology department provides medical imaging services to diagnose and treat diseases within the body.
• This department consists of X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), fluoroscopy.
• In the radiology department staff may get affected by the radiation so, radiology staff must be protected from radiation hazards.

Clinical Pathology Department -

• Clinical pathology is also known as a medical laboratory.
• It is a medical speciality that deals with the diagnosis of diseases with the help of laboratory analysis of body fluids.
• Common tools used in this department are the microscope, strips, analyzers and centrifuges.

Nutrition and Dietetics -

• This department provides professional advice on diet for the inpatients as well as outpatients.
• This department collaborates with certain departments that require patients to be put on a diet such as diabetes, kidney diseases, elderly care, gastroenterology, surgery and critical care.
• This department suggests a dietary plan followed by the hospital canteen facilities.

Catering and Food Services -

• This department provides balanced meals to inpatient clients, their families and hospital staffs according to the advice of the nutrition department.

Central Sterilization Unit -

• This department is responsible to keep clean and sterile all the used instruments of the hospital to prevent infection from spreading.

Housekeeping -

• Housekeeping department is responsible to keep all the hospital neat and clean.
• Services include cleaning all rooms, disposing of waste and laundry.

Technical Departments in a Hospital

Clinical Engineering Department -

• Clinical engineering department is responsible for the advanced care in a hospital through active support, direction and application of medical equipments.
• Clinical engineers inspect and maintain the performance of medical equipments that prevents hazards and optimize the accuracy of results.

Information Technology and Communication -

• This department deals with computers to store and track the patient's records and other medical data of a hospital.
• This department is responsible for technical support and keep the system updated.
• This department also provides online services for clients.

Engineering Services -

• Engineering services deal with electricity supply, water supply, piped medical gases, clinical vacuum system, air conditioning, lifts, lighting etc of a hospital.
• It ensures the optimum efficiency of engineering systems.
• It prevents hazards and breakdowns of hospital engineering systems.

Administrative Department in a Hospital

Medical Records Department -

• This department deals with medical data recording and maintain all inpatients and outpatients client's files.
• Data from this department helps the hospital to get statistics that improve hospital service growth.

Human Resources Department -

• This department deals with recruiting employees in various positions of the hospital.
• This department also creates policies and regulations for the employees.
• This department is actively responsible for the hospital growth and optimum services.

Finance Department -

• This department is responsible for the financial growth of a hospital.
• It set up budgets, plans and arrange financial resources to maintain the smooth running of a hospital.
• This department is also responsible for the purchasing of medical supplies, staffs wage and other financial aspects.

Administrative Department -

• Administrative department deals with the overall management of a hospital.
• It set up protocol and procedures for all departments of a hospital.
• This department is responsible for the hospital growth and development. An ideal administrative department can run a hospital smoothly with huge financial benefits.