Breastfeeding PPT: Advantages, Types, Techniques

Breastfeeding PPT Free Download for Nurses: Definition, Advantages, Types, Techniques.

Breastfeeding is the process of feeding human breast milk to a child. Breast milk can be expressed from the breast, expressed by hand, or pumped and fed to the infant.
Download breastfeeding pdf, nursing notes free of cost.

Breastfeeding PPT, Nursing Notes Includes the following Topics:

• Definition of breastfeeding
• Anatomy and physiology
• Brest milk production and reflex
• Techniques of breastfeeding
• Breast milk nutritional contents
• Types of breast milk
• Advantages of breastfeeding
• Contraindications to breastfeeding
• Proper way to breastfeed
• Positioning of breastfeeding
• Breast milk storage
• Complications
• Nutrition while breastfeeding

Breastfeeding PPT: Advantages, Types, Techniques, nursing notes, download pdf,

Advantages of Breastfeeding:

• For most babies, breast milk is the best source of nutrition.
• Breastfeeding can help protect babies from certain illnesses and diseases, both short and long-term.
• Breast milk passes antibodies from the mother to the child.
• Mothers can breastfeed at any time and from any location.
• Breastfeeding can lower a mother's risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure.

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Determinants of Health PPT

Health Care Delivery System in India PPT

Bed Bath Procedure in Nursing PDF

Bed Bath Procedure, Nursing, pdf, sponge bath procedure, types, purposes,

Bed Bath Procedure: Introduction, Purpose, Types and Procedure Steps.

Bed bath procedure is an essential component of nursing care.
• Whether the nurse needs to perform the bath or delegated the activity to another healthcare provider, the nurse is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the client's hygienic needs are met.
• Individuals' bathing habits may vary depending on their cultural practices, the nature of their illness, the condition of their skin (dry skin requires less frequent bathing), and the type of weather, among other factors.
• Too much bathing can interrupt the sebum's intended lubricating effect, resulting in skin drying.

Bed Bath Purposes:

• To disinfect the skin's surface.
• To keep bacteria from spreading on the skin.
• To help in resting and sleep.
• To increase blood circulation.
• To re-energize the client.
• To strengthen the client's self-esteem.
• To improve overall muscle tone and joint mobility.
• To avoid bed sores.
• To give patients and their families the opportunity to learn about good personal hygiene.
• To lower the body temperature.

Principles of Bed Bath Procedure:

• Keep the patient warm and private by covering him or her.
• Hand washing is required both before and after the procedure.
Body mechanics principles should be followed.
• Healthy, unbroken skin acts as a barrier against potentially dangerous chemicals.
• Maintain safety and avoid falls.
• The frequency of bathing is determined by the condition of the skin.
• Soap should not be used on ruptured skin.
• If the client is obese or unable to move on the bed, the nurse may shift from one side of the bed to the other to ensure proper body mechanics.
• Before bathing, assess the patient's overall condition. If you are unstable, avoid giving a bath.
• A bath should not be provided immediately following a meal.
• Early signs of bed sore are detected by inspecting the skin and back.
• Crease and folds, as well as bony prominences, must be given special attention because these areas are prone to bed sores.
• The water temperature should be between 110 and 115 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Every time clean the parts of the body from the cleanest to the least clean, and always expose one part of the body at a time to be washed, rinsed, and dried. 
• To prevent dryness on the back, creams or oils are applied.
Never apply spirit to your skin.
• During the procedure, provide health education.

Types of Bed Bath:

1. Cleaning bed bath
      • Cleaning baths are administered as usual routine care.
      • The types of cleaning baths are:
         a) Shower bath or tub bath
         b) Sponge bath or complete bath

2. Therapeutic bed bath
      • It necessarily requires a doctor's order specifying the type of bath, water temperature, body surfaces to be allowed to treat, and prescribed medication solution to be applied.
      • A therapeutic bath is typically taken in a tub.
      • Further categorised below:
         a) Cool or tepid water bath
         b) Soak bath
         c) Sitz bath


1) Shower bath or tub bath procedure:

• Ambulatory patients may be given permission to take a bath inside the bathroom with the assistance of a nurse.

Necessary articles for the bed bath procedure -

         ̶ Warm tap water
         ̶ Soap
         ̶ Towel
         ̶ Clean clothes

Procedure steps -

• Inform the patient and his family about the procedure. 
Gather all the articles.
• Check that the bathroom floor is not slippery and that it is warm.
• Help the patient up to the shower room (if necessary) to keep him or her from falling.
• Close the bathroom door for privacy.
• Always keep the bathroom door unlocked so that a nurse or other medical staff can enter if necessary.
• As needed, assist the patient in bathing.
• As needed, assist him in going to bed.
• Maintain a comfortable position for the patient.
• Replace all articles, and documents and report the procedure.

2) Complete bed bath procedure:

Bed bathing or sponge bathing is the term used to describe bathing a patient in bed.
• Complete bed bathing involves cleansing skin areas where secretions gather or dirt accumulates, such as the face, hand, axilla, groyne, perineal area, feet, and other body parts.

Indications of complete bed bath -

• Patients who are unconscious or semi-conscious. 
• Patients who are bedridden.
• Patients who are paralyzed.
• Orthopedic patient with traction and a plaster cast
• Patients who are critically ill.

Required articles -

A trolley with a clean tray that contains:
• Bowl - 1
• Big bucket - 2 (one for warm water and the other is for collection for dirty water)
• Jug
• Sponge clothes - 3 to 5
• Soap with soap dish
• Clean cloth
• Mackintosh - 1
• Towels - 2
• Gauge pieces/cotton balls
• Bath thermometer -1 (if available)
• Bath blanket/bed sheet - 1
• Oil or lotion
• Body powder

Procedure steps -

• Describe the procedure to the patient and family members, and encourage them to participate.
• Close doors and windows to ensure that there are no draughts in the room, and turn off the fan.
Create privacy by closing doors and drawing curtains.
• If he or she requires it, provide a bedpan or urinal.
• Prepare the bed and position the patient correctly.
       - Place the bed on a high shelf.
       - Position the patient (supine) near the right side of the bed or near the nurse.
• Use soap and water to wash your hands.
• Prepare all necessary instruments.
• Bring the items to your bedside.
• Pour some water on the inside of the patient's palm to test the temperature.
• Take off the patient's clothes and cover him or her with a bath blanket or sheet. Only expose the body part that needs to be washed.

Washing Face:

• Place the mackintosh and bath towel beneath the patient's head and across his or her chest.
• Wipe the eyes with cotton.
• Wash the patient's eyes with separate cotton ball corners for each eye, wiping from the inner canthus to the outer canthus.
• Using a mitten cloth, wash, clean, and dry the patient's face, neck, and ears (sponge cloth).
• If necessary, replace the bath water.

Cleaning Arms and Hands:

• Keep a bath towel and a mackintosh lengthwise underneath the far arm from you.
• Wash, use soap, rinse, and dry the arms using lengthy strokes from the distal to the proximal areas.
• Using the second bath towel, pat dry. Avoid rubbing.
• Thoroughly clean the patient's axilla. If you have an IV infusion on your arm, use caution.
• Repeat the entire process with the other arm.
• If the water is cold, dirty, or soapy, replace it.

Cleaning Chest and Abdomen:

• Raise the sheet to the pubic part. Put a towel and a mackintosh underneath your chest and abdomen.
• Clean, rinse, and pat dry the chest and abdomen, paying special attention to the skin folds beneath the breasts.
• Wash the area with long, firm strokes.
• If the water is cold, dirty, or soapy, change it.

Cleaning the Back of the Patient:

• Turn the client to the side or prone position, exposing the back side.
• Put the mackintosh and towel lengthwise along the patient's back.
• To clean, rinse, and dry, use long, firm strokes from the neck to the buttocks.
• Massage the back of the patient.
• Replace the bath water.
• Return the patient to a supine position.

Washing the Legs of the patient:

• Exposed the outer thigh. Wrap a mackintosh in a towel and place it under the furthermost leg away from you.
Flex the leg at the knee, place a support underneath the leg, and instruct the patient to hold the position. Allow another nurse or visitor to assist with the leg support if the patient is unable to do so.
• Using long, firm strokes, wash from distal to proximal, from ankle to knee to thigh.
• Avoid using such lengthy strokes in patients with lower extremity blood clots, such as DVT, as they may help remove the clot.
• Clean, rinse and dry the legs.
• Drain the water.
• Repeat the full procedure for the second leg.

• If the patient is able, encourage him or her to clean the perineal area. Otherwise, ask the patient's visitor or the nurse to do something for the patient.
• If the patient requests it or if the skin is dry, apply moisturizer or body lotion.
• Simply remove the mackintosh and towel from the patient.
• Assist the patient with dressing.
• Comb hair and use a towel to cover the bed.
Replace the bed linens and place the patient in a comfortable posture.
• Wash, dry, and return the items to their proper location.
Record the date, time, and patient's condition in the patient chart.
The nurse should report to the senior staff about the procedure.

Important Points:

Mouth care should be done before the start of the procedure.
• Before taking a bath, make sure your bladder is empty.
• When the water becomes dirty or cold, it should be changed.
• Inform the patient's family members about the importance of bathing.

Bed Bath Procedure in Nursing PDF -

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Conclusion -

Bed bath procedure is an essential procedure for the bedridden, unconscious, severe ill patients. Performing a correct procedure will improve patient health status and personal hygiene.
In this article, discussed about bed bath procedure definition, types, purposes and complete procedure step by step.

Nursing Interventions for Hyponatremia - Nursing Care Plan

Nursing Interventions for Hyponatremia, Nursing Care Plan, NANDA,

Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Interventions of Hyponatremia

What is Hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia is a condition where the sodium level in the blood is less than 135 milliequivalents per liter (135 mEq/L).

It refers to a low level of sodium in the blood and due to this condition too much water holds onto the body.

Signs and Symptoms of Hyponatremia.

• Nausea and vomiting
• Loss of energy
• Fatigue and drowsiness
• Headache
• confusion
• Irritability
• Muscle spasms and weakness
• coma

Causes of Hyponatremia

Medications - There are some medications which affect the fluid balance in the body which leads to a decreased level of sodium in the body. Such medications are diuretics, pain killers and antidepressants that affect the normal hormonal and kidney processes.
Dysfunctions of heart, kidney and liver - Due to the dysfunctions of the heart, kidney and liver the body fluids accumulate in the body which dilutes the sodium in the body and decreases the sodium level.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) - In this disorder, the body secretes high amounts of antidiuretic hormone and due to this water remains in the body instead of excreting as urine.
Severe dehydration - Severe vomiting, diarrhoea and other causes lead to severe dehydration and these causes lose of electrolytes from the body.
Excessive fluid intake - Excessive water or fluid intake dilute the sodium in the body and also leads to excessive urination which decreases the sodium level in the body.
Changes in hormone production - Certain conditions alternate the normal hormone production from the adrenal gland, which affects sodium, potassium and water balance.

Risk Factors of Hyponatremia -

There are some risk factors which increase the chances of hyponatremia -

Age - Older adults have more chances of developing hyponatremia.
Drugs - Certain medications increase the risks of hyponatremia such as antidepressants, diuretics and pain killers medications.
Disease conditions - There are some medical conditions which increase the risk of hyponatremia such as kidney disease, SIADH, heart failure etc.
Excessive fluid intake during physical activities - Excessive fluid intake during physical activities increases the risk of hyponatremia as it dilutes the sodium level and increases urination.

Complications of Hyponatremia -

In hyponatremia, the sodium level decreases rapidly which results in swelling in the brain, coma and death.

Diagnosis of Hyponatremia -

History collections
Physical examinations
Urine analysis - For measuring sodium level in urine and osmolarity.
Blood tests - For measuring the serum sodium level and ADH level in the body.

Treatment of Hyponatremia -

Restriction in fluid intake - Fluid restrictions prevent sodium dilution as fluid volume decreases in the body. For mild hyponatremia clients, fluid restriction treats the condition and maintains a normal sodium level.
Administration of IV fluids - Slow administration of sodium solutions in the intravenous increases the sodium level in the blood. However, rapid administration can lead to complications and side effects. Follow the physician's advice.
Medications - There are some medications, your physician may stop if they induce hyponatremia. Also, your physician may advise some medications to treat hyponatremia.

Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Interventions for Hyponatremia - Nursing Care Plan

Nursing Diagnosis for Hyponatremia - 1

• Electrolyte imbalance related to diarrhea, vomiting, profuse sweating and renal disease.

Expected Outcome -

The client will be able to maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance.

Hyponatremia Nursing Interventions


Monitor the client's vital signs especially respiratory rate and depth. Monitoring vital signs is important to understand the client's current condition. Also, a patient may experience slow and shallow respiration.
Collect urine and blood sample from the client. Blood test and urine analysis help to measure the sodium and osmolarity levels in the body. ADH test measures ADH level.
Restrict the fluid intake of the client as per the physician's advice. Fluid restriction prevents sodium dilution and frequent urination which helps to maintain sodium balance.
Monitor strict intake and output of the client. Continuous intake output monitoring helps to follow the fluid restriction advice strictly.
Administer sodium solution and medications as per doctor's order. It helps to increase the sodium level and also maintain normal fluid balance.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hyponatremia - 2

• Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirement related to vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite and weakness.

Expected Outcome -

The client will be able to maintain a normal body weight and healthy eating habits.

Hyponatremia Nursing Interventions


Assess the client's current health condition and eating habits. It helps to understand the current nutritional status of the patient such as weight, BMI and eating habits.
Maintain a weight monitoring chart and record the food and fluid intake daily. To monitor the patient's eating habits, nutritional intake and weight progress.
Provide a small amount and frequent diet to the patient considering nutritional value. To increase calorie intake and decrease the chances of nausea and vomiting after having food.
Refer to the dietician. To provide a specialized and appropriate diet for the hyponatremia patient.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hyponatremia - 3

• Knowledge deficit related to diagnosis of hyponatremia as evidenced by verbalization of the patient.

Expected Outcome -

The patient will be able to gain enough knowledge regarding hyponatremia and its management after the health teaching discussion.

Hyponatremia Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess the client's current condition regarding emotional status, willingness to learn and learning barriers. To understand the patient's mental status, and knowledge about hyponatremia and also to overcome the barriers to learning.
Explain hyponatremia and its causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management. Explain in simple terms instead of using medical terminology to the patient. To provide information about hyponatremia and how it affects the body in simple terms.
Teach the client about normal sodium levels in the body. Provide proper information about lifestyle and diet modification. To educate the client on normal levels of sodium and its effects on the body and follow-ups.
Educate the caregiver about how to monitor the intake and output of the patient strictly. To monitor the patient's intake output chart strictly.

Staff Nurse Exam Questions and Answers PDF

Staff Nurse Exam Questions and Answers PDF, Nursing Exam, Nursing Mock Test, MCQS, NCLEX

Staff Nurse Exam Questions and Answers PDF

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