Bed Bath Procedure in Nursing PDF

Bed Bath Procedure, Nursing, pdf, sponge bath procedure, types, purposes,

Bed Bath Procedure: Introduction, Purpose, Types and Procedure Steps.

Bed bath procedure is an essential component of nursing care.
• Whether the nurse needs to perform the bath or delegated the activity to another healthcare provider, the nurse is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the client's hygienic needs are met.
• Individuals' bathing habits may vary depending on their cultural practices, the nature of their illness, the condition of their skin (dry skin requires less frequent bathing), and the type of weather, among other factors.
• Too much bathing can interrupt the sebum's intended lubricating effect, resulting in skin drying.

Bed Bath Purposes:

• To disinfect the skin's surface.
• To keep bacteria from spreading on the skin.
• To help in resting and sleep.
• To increase blood circulation.
• To re-energize the client.
• To strengthen the client's self-esteem.
• To improve overall muscle tone and joint mobility.
• To avoid bed sores.
• To give patients and their families the opportunity to learn about good personal hygiene.
• To lower the body temperature.

Principles of Bed Bath Procedure:

• Keep the patient warm and private by covering him or her.
• Hand washing is required both before and after the procedure.
Body mechanics principles should be followed.
• Healthy, unbroken skin acts as a barrier against potentially dangerous chemicals.
• Maintain safety and avoid falls.
• The frequency of bathing is determined by the condition of the skin.
• Soap should not be used on ruptured skin.
• If the client is obese or unable to move on the bed, the nurse may shift from one side of the bed to the other to ensure proper body mechanics.
• Before bathing, assess the patient's overall condition. If you are unstable, avoid giving a bath.
• A bath should not be provided immediately following a meal.
• Early signs of bed sore are detected by inspecting the skin and back.
• Crease and folds, as well as bony prominences, must be given special attention because these areas are prone to bed sores.
• The water temperature should be between 110 and 115 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Every time clean the parts of the body from the cleanest to the least clean, and always expose one part of the body at a time to be washed, rinsed, and dried. 
• To prevent dryness on the back, creams or oils are applied.
Never apply spirit to your skin.
• During the procedure, provide health education.

Types of Bed Bath:

1. Cleaning bed bath
      • Cleaning baths are administered as usual routine care.
      • The types of cleaning baths are:
         a) Shower bath or tub bath
         b) Sponge bath or complete bath

2. Therapeutic bed bath
      • It necessarily requires a doctor's order specifying the type of bath, water temperature, body surfaces to be allowed to treat, and prescribed medication solution to be applied.
      • A therapeutic bath is typically taken in a tub.
      • Further categorised below:
         a) Cool or tepid water bath
         b) Soak bath
         c) Sitz bath


1) Shower bath or tub bath procedure:

• Ambulatory patients may be given permission to take a bath inside the bathroom with the assistance of a nurse.

Necessary articles for the bed bath procedure -

         ̶ Warm tap water
         ̶ Soap
         ̶ Towel
         ̶ Clean clothes

Procedure steps -

• Inform the patient and his family about the procedure. 
Gather all the articles.
• Check that the bathroom floor is not slippery and that it is warm.
• Help the patient up to the shower room (if necessary) to keep him or her from falling.
• Close the bathroom door for privacy.
• Always keep the bathroom door unlocked so that a nurse or other medical staff can enter if necessary.
• As needed, assist the patient in bathing.
• As needed, assist him in going to bed.
• Maintain a comfortable position for the patient.
• Replace all articles, and documents and report the procedure.

2) Complete bed bath procedure:

Bed bathing or sponge bathing is the term used to describe bathing a patient in bed.
• Complete bed bathing involves cleansing skin areas where secretions gather or dirt accumulates, such as the face, hand, axilla, groyne, perineal area, feet, and other body parts.

Indications of complete bed bath -

• Patients who are unconscious or semi-conscious. 
• Patients who are bedridden.
• Patients who are paralyzed.
• Orthopedic patient with traction and a plaster cast
• Patients who are critically ill.

Required articles -

A trolley with a clean tray that contains:
• Bowl - 1
• Big bucket - 2 (one for warm water and the other is for collection for dirty water)
• Jug
• Sponge clothes - 3 to 5
• Soap with soap dish
• Clean cloth
• Mackintosh - 1
• Towels - 2
• Gauge pieces/cotton balls
• Bath thermometer -1 (if available)
• Bath blanket/bed sheet - 1
• Oil or lotion
• Body powder

Procedure steps -

• Describe the procedure to the patient and family members, and encourage them to participate.
• Close doors and windows to ensure that there are no draughts in the room, and turn off the fan.
Create privacy by closing doors and drawing curtains.
• If he or she requires it, provide a bedpan or urinal.
• Prepare the bed and position the patient correctly.
       - Place the bed on a high shelf.
       - Position the patient (supine) near the right side of the bed or near the nurse.
• Use soap and water to wash your hands.
• Prepare all necessary instruments.
• Bring the items to your bedside.
• Pour some water on the inside of the patient's palm to test the temperature.
• Take off the patient's clothes and cover him or her with a bath blanket or sheet. Only expose the body part that needs to be washed.

Washing Face:

• Place the mackintosh and bath towel beneath the patient's head and across his or her chest.
• Wipe the eyes with cotton.
• Wash the patient's eyes with separate cotton ball corners for each eye, wiping from the inner canthus to the outer canthus.
• Using a mitten cloth, wash, clean, and dry the patient's face, neck, and ears (sponge cloth).
• If necessary, replace the bath water.

Cleaning Arms and Hands:

• Keep a bath towel and a mackintosh lengthwise underneath the far arm from you.
• Wash, use soap, rinse, and dry the arms using lengthy strokes from the distal to the proximal areas.
• Using the second bath towel, pat dry. Avoid rubbing.
• Thoroughly clean the patient's axilla. If you have an IV infusion on your arm, use caution.
• Repeat the entire process with the other arm.
• If the water is cold, dirty, or soapy, replace it.

Cleaning Chest and Abdomen:

• Raise the sheet to the pubic part. Put a towel and a mackintosh underneath your chest and abdomen.
• Clean, rinse, and pat dry the chest and abdomen, paying special attention to the skin folds beneath the breasts.
• Wash the area with long, firm strokes.
• If the water is cold, dirty, or soapy, change it.

Cleaning the Back of the Patient:

• Turn the client to the side or prone position, exposing the back side.
• Put the mackintosh and towel lengthwise along the patient's back.
• To clean, rinse, and dry, use long, firm strokes from the neck to the buttocks.
• Massage the back of the patient.
• Replace the bath water.
• Return the patient to a supine position.

Washing the Legs of the patient:

• Exposed the outer thigh. Wrap a mackintosh in a towel and place it under the furthermost leg away from you.
Flex the leg at the knee, place a support underneath the leg, and instruct the patient to hold the position. Allow another nurse or visitor to assist with the leg support if the patient is unable to do so.
• Using long, firm strokes, wash from distal to proximal, from ankle to knee to thigh.
• Avoid using such lengthy strokes in patients with lower extremity blood clots, such as DVT, as they may help remove the clot.
• Clean, rinse and dry the legs.
• Drain the water.
• Repeat the full procedure for the second leg.

• If the patient is able, encourage him or her to clean the perineal area. Otherwise, ask the patient's visitor or the nurse to do something for the patient.
• If the patient requests it or if the skin is dry, apply moisturizer or body lotion.
• Simply remove the mackintosh and towel from the patient.
• Assist the patient with dressing.
• Comb hair and use a towel to cover the bed.
Replace the bed linens and place the patient in a comfortable posture.
• Wash, dry, and return the items to their proper location.
Record the date, time, and patient's condition in the patient chart.
The nurse should report to the senior staff about the procedure.

Important Points:

Mouth care should be done before the start of the procedure.
• Before taking a bath, make sure your bladder is empty.
• When the water becomes dirty or cold, it should be changed.
• Inform the patient's family members about the importance of bathing.

Bed Bath Procedure in Nursing PDF -

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Conclusion -

Bed bath procedure is an essential procedure for the bedridden, unconscious, severe ill patients. Performing a correct procedure will improve patient health status and personal hygiene.
In this article, discussed about bed bath procedure definition, types, purposes and complete procedure step by step.